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Fig demonstrates the significant decrease in the water absorptiveness


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Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund (TRF, grant no. MSD56I0173), Safer Pac (Thailand) Co. Ltd., the Higher Education Research Promotion, and National Research University (NRU) Project, King Mongkut‘s University of Technology Thonburi, Thailand. The authors would like to thank Mr. Craig Butler, English Instructor of King Mongkut‘s University of Technology, for proof reading an earlier version of this manuscript.


Introduction
Lantana camara is a well-known medicinal plant of the family Verbenaceae which is mainly used as a traditional medicine and also as firewood and mulch (Kalita et al., 2012). Leaf extracts of lantana exhibit antimicrobial, fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal properties (Kalita et al., 2012; Reddy, 2013). Verbascoside, which possesses antimicrobial, immunosuppressive and antitumour activities, has been extracted from lantana (Kalita et al., 2012). Recently, research has emphasized feasible uses of L. camara in modern medicine (Srivastava et al., 2011; Kalita et al., 2012; Reddy, 2013).
Much research has revealed the success of in vitro culture for many plant species in the Verbenaceae (Steephen et al., 2010; Ravinder Singh et al., 2011Srinivasan et al., 2012; Waoo et al., 2013). Several concentrations of plant growth regulators have been applied in in vitro culture techniques for many species (Balaraju et al., 2008; Steephen et al., 2010; Ravinder Singh et al., 2011; Srinivasan et al., 2012). Inducing bud break and MLN4924 regeneration was found effective using 2.0 mg/L N6-benzyladenine (BA) for Vitex agnus-castus (Balaraju et al., 2008) and 1.0 mg/L BA for Vitex negundo L. (Steephen et al., 2010). A concentration of 3.0 mg/L BA showed the most promising shoot multiplication effect for Premna serratifolia L. (Ravinder Singh et al., 2011) and Tectona grandis L.f. (Srinivasan et al., 2012). A range of BA concentrations from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/L induced the highest shoot number (three shoots per explant) in L. camara (Waoo et al., 2013). The in vitro regenerated shoots of V. agnus-castus later produced roots when transferred onto half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) supplemented with 0.1 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (Balaraju et al., 2008). A rooted shoot of P. serratifolia L. was achieved after nodal cutting using half-strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (Ravinder Singh et al., 2011). An important factor reported in several species with regard to callus induction is the type of explant, for example: shoot buds of P. serratifolia L. (Ravinder Singh et al., 2011), internodal segments of T. grandis L.f. (Widiyanto et al., 2005) and young leaves and shoot tips of L. camara (Saxena et al., 2013). In addition, there was variation in the plant growth regulators used to induce callus: only indoleacetic acid (IAA) (Ravinder Singh et al., 2011), BA (Srinivasan et al., 2012) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (Saxena et al., 2013) as well as a combination of BA and NAA (Widiyanto et al., 2005).
A plant cell culture technique has been reported to supply a continuous and reliable source of natural products (Vijaya et al., 2010). In addition, the callus culture has also been reported to effectively produce some active ingredients and specific medicinal compounds equivalent or superior to that of intact plants, for example: flavonoid from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, camptothecin from Nothapodytes foetida, catharanthine from Catharanthus roseus and anthraquinone from Cassia acutifolia (Tan et al., 2010; Vijaya et al., 2010; Hussain et al., 2012). In L. camara, three pentacyclic triterpenoids consisting of betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were found to accumulate in callus growing on leaf disc explants. Their important activities were effective in killing cancerous cells (Srivastava et al., 2010). Additionally, the callus extract containing allelopathic compounds showed toxicity to the growth of Salvinia molesta Mitchell (Saxena et al., 2013).
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